met by three Resource ego states, a Nurturing Adult Self, a Protective
Adult Self, and a Spiritual Core Self. These Resources assume a competent
caregiver role... together these three Resources form a wonderful
container called a Healing Circle. Wounded child parts are invited
inside the circle, and asked what they need most now. The Resources
are able to meet that need. Then they are asked what else is needed
and the Resources meet that need too. " What
is EMDR? Developmental Needs Meeting Strategy
different techniques for anxiety management
"Anxiety management involves
learning several skills that will help you cope better with PTSD symptoms...Some
people use anxiety management techniques to help control anxiety while
they do exposure therapy. Five different techniques for anxiety management
- Breathing training
- Assertiveness training
- Positive thinking and self-talk
- Thought stopping"
Coping skills for sexual assault
"learning skills for coping
with anxiety (such as breathing
retraining or biofeedback)
and negative thoughts ("cognitive
preparing for stress reactions ("stress
handling future trauma symptoms,
addressing urges to use alcohol or drugs when trauma symptoms occur
communicating and relating effectively with people (social skills
or marital therapy). " A
National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet
Skills from The Joyful Heart Foundation
- scroll down
Video and audio coping skills
video on yoga
of good and bad coping strategies
or avoidance coping skills and sexual abuse -
type those words into the search box at Amazon.com
Trauma of Sexual Assault : Treatment, Prevention and Practice
Rape Recovery Handbook: Step-By-Step Help for Survivors of Sexual
by Aphrodite, Ph.D. Matsakis
Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Second Edition:
Basic Principles, Protocols, and Procedures
by Francine Shapiro
: The Breakthrough Therapy for Overcoming Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma
by Francine Shapiro, Margot Silk Forrest
"EMDR, or eye movement
desensitization and reprocessing, is a new, nontraditional, very short-term
therapy for treating trauma victims that utilizes rhythmical stimulation
such as eye movements or hand taps"
Recommended coping skills are
Approach coping strategies-
the use of moderate exercise (unless you have an eating disorder),
information seeking, and relaxation. These types of coping
skills are described below.
Not recommended are:
Avoidance coping strategies-
antisocial behavior, "partying" behavior, and substance
use mediates the effect of stressors on increased psychological symptoms.
Self blame and denial are also considered avoidance coping skills.
(Broder, 1996) These types of
coping skills inhibit healing.
Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf,
Carmen Radecki (2006). Coping with the experience of rape. Psychology
of Women Quarterly, 30(1), pp. 106-116.
"Research provides evidence
that victims who rely heavily on avoidance strategies, such as suppression,
are less likely to recover successfully than those who rely less heavily
on these strategies. The present study utilized structural path analysis
to identify predictors of avoidance coping following rape and examined
factors in the assault itself (e.g., force, alcohol use), sequelae
of the assault (e.g., self-blame, loss of self-worth), and social
support as potential direct and indirect predictors of avoidance coping.
Frazier, Patricia A.; Mortensen,
Heather; Steward, Jason (2005). Coping Strategies as Mediators of
the Relations Among Perceived Control and Distress in Sexual Assault
Survivors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 52(3), Jul 2005.
"Past control (behavioral
self-blame) was associated with more distress partly because it was
associated with greater social withdrawal. Present control (control
over the recovery process) was associated with less distress partly
because it was associated with less social withdrawal and more cognitive
Assessing approach and avoidance:
Coping skills and their determinants and outcomes. Moos, Rudolf H.;
Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 24(1), Mar 1997. pp. 58-64.
"Describes the development
and psychometric characteristics of the Coping Responses Inventory
(CRI), which assesses eight types of approach and avoidance coping
responses among adults and youth. To illustrate some of the research
applications of measuring coping responses, findings from longitudinal
studies of adaptation among distressed and healthy individuals and
two case reports (a 23-yr-old female in an abusive relationship and
a 16-yr-old with an unplanned pregnancy) are reviewed. One relatively
consistent finding is that individuals who rely more on approach and
less on avoidance coping tend to experience better health and well-being.
Applications of the work for clinicians and program evaluators are
noted and issues for future research on stress and coping theory are
Adolescent stress and styles
of coping: Predictors and moderators of psychological distress. Broder,
Benjamin Isaac; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The
Sciences and Engineering, Vol 57(5-B), Nov 1996. pp. 3126.
"The present study hypothesized
that the effect of coping on the relationship between life events
(stressors) and psychological symptoms (distress) in adolescence depends
on the type of coping skills used, specifically that avoidance coping
skills mediate, and approach coping skills buffer or moderate, this
relationship. As part of a large community-based prevention trial,
a random sample of 9th, 10th and 11th grade students was administered
a self-report survey that included life events, coping strategies,
and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, and somatic complaints).
Using baseline and one year follow-up data, longitudinal single and
multiple group structural equation models were used to evaluate mediating
and moderating effects of different coping strategies. Results supported
the hypothesis that adolescent use of avoidance coping strategies
of antisocial behavior, "partying" behavior, and substance
use mediates the effect of stressors on increased psychological symptoms.
The results also supported a stress-buffering effect of the use of
high levels of approach coping strategies of exercise, information
seeking, and relaxation. High levels of approach coping protect against
the negative effects of stressful life events on psychological symptoms.
Some gender and age-specific differences in levels of stressors and
distress were observed. Females reported more stressful life events
and more psychological symptoms or distress than males. Older students
reported more stressful life events than younger students. The hypothesized
results would suggest that prevention programs aimed at decreasing
risk for mental illness, drug abuse, and problem behaviors in adolescents
should emphasize both decreasing the use of avoidance coping strategies
and increasing the use of approach coping strategies."
McGlone, Gerard J.. (2004).
Bibliography: Recovery and Healing From Sexual Abuse. Human Development.
25 (1). p47-48, 2p.
"Presents a bibliography
of articles on recovery and healing from sexual abuse. "The Me
Nobody Knows: A Guide for Teen Survivors"; "Outgrowing the
Pain Together: Partners, Friends, and Families of Abuse Victims";
"Outgrowing the Pain"; "Someone in My Family Molested
Children"; "That's Never Been Told: Healing the Wounds of
Childhood Sexual Abuse"; "How Long Does It Hurt? A Guide
to Recovering From Incest and Sexual Abuse for Teenagers, Their Friend,
and Their Families"."
Resick, Patricia A.; Schnicke,
Monica K. (1990). Treating symptoms in adult victims of sexual assault.
; Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol 5(4). pp. 488-506.
"Reviews the literature
on the theories and treatment of sexual assault victims. Crisis theory
and intervention are addressed, followed by a discussion of cognitive
and behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD),
depression, and sexual dysfunctions. Treatments considered include
exposure techniques, coping skills packages, and cognitive therapy.
A description of information processing theory is included."
Hirai, Michiyo; Clum, George
A.. (2005). An Internet-Based Self-Change Program for Traumatic Event
Related Fear, Distress, and Maladaptive Coping. Journal of Traumatic
Stress. 18 (6). p631-636. link
"This study compared the efficacy of an Internet-based, 8-week
self-help program for traumatic event-related consequences (SHTC)
(n = 13) to a wait-list (WL) condition (n = 14). The SHTC consisted
of cognitive–behavioral modules that progressed from the least
anxiety-provoking component (i.e., information) to the most anxiety-provoking
(i.e., exposure). Participants were those who had experienced a traumatic
event and had been experiencing subclinical levels of symptoms associated
with the event. Participants mastered the material in each module
before proceeding to the next module. Pre- and post-treatment assessments
revealed that SHTC participants decreased avoidance behavior, frequency
of intrusive symptoms, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms, and
increased coping skills and coping self-efficacy significantly more
than WL participants. SHTC participants demonstrated more clinically
significant improvement than WL individuals."
Lawler, Casey; Ouimette,
Paige; Dahlstedt, Drew. (2005). Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Coping,
and Physical Health Status Among University Students Seeking Health
Care. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 18 (6). p741-750. link
"This study examined
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, coping, and physical
health status in students reporting a trauma history (N = 138) using
structural equation modeling. Participants completed questionnaires
assessing PTSD symptoms, coping specific to health-related and trauma-related
stressors and physical health. After accounting for coping with health-specific
problems, trauma-specific avoidance coping was uniquely associated
with poorer health status. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms
were associated with poorer physical health status, controlling for
age, health behaviors, and other psychopathology. In addition, the
effect of PTSD symptoms on poorer health status was mediated by health-
and trauma-specific avoidance coping. Results suggest that university
health centers should screen for PTSD and consider psychoeducational
programs and coping skills interventions for survivors of trauma."
Iglesias, Silvia L.;
Azzara, Sergio; Squillace, Mario; Jeifetz, Mirta; Lores Arnais, María
R.; Desimone, Martin F.; Diaz, Luis E.. (2005). A study on the effectiveness
of a stress management programme for College students. Pharmacy Education.
5 (1). p27-31, 5p. link
"The purpose of
this study was to obtain empirical evidence of the effects of a stress
management programme on undergraduate Pharmacy and Biochemistry students.
As a first stage, we evaluated beliefs, academic skills and personal
stress involvement problems in 136 students. As a second stage, we
designed a stress management pilot programme (SMPP) including psycho-educational
resources; coping skills training; deep breathing, relaxation and
guided imaginary techniques; cognitive restructuring and time management.
To evaluate the effects of the SMPP on students we assessed a set
of variables before and after the treatment: Anxiety, anger, stress,
coping strategies, helplessness, salivary cortisol and psycho-physiological
reactivity levels. Towards the end of their SMPP exposure, students
had lower levels of stress, anxiety, anger, neuroticism, helplessness
and salivary cortisol. These results suggest that SMPP has a promising
applicability to deal with high levels of stress, improving the students
academic performance and health."
Brownhill, Suzanne. ( 2004).
The Coping Quadrant:
working with and against depression. Counselling Psychology Quarterly.
17 (4). p425-435, 11p. link
"This paper presents
a model of coping that intersects the emotion and social dimensions
of depression. It demonstrates the dynamic socio-emotion interplay
and modulation of affect in response to our environment, specifically
in relationship to others. Humans can be socially disconnected but
emotionally repleted, or socially connected but emotionally depleted,
but those who are depressed are more likely to be socially disconnected
and emotionally depleted. Conversely, those who are socially connected
and emotionally repleted are more likely to employ adaptive coping
skills to alleviate emotional distress. When applied to counselling
sessions, the model helps to explain client and counsellor dissatisfaction
with the process and outcome of the interaction. The model is designed
to increase awareness of emotion regulation and to enhance coping
skills by offering a practical approach to managing socio-emotion
response to the vicissitudes of life."
Carr, Alan. (2004).
Interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents.
Pediatric Rehabilitation. 7 (4). p231-244, 14p. link
epidemiology and aetiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
are outlined. Treatment outcome studies involving children with PTSD
who have survived traumatic accidents, natural disasters and child
sexual abuse are reviewed. An evidence-based assessment and treatment
protocol is outlined for children and adolescents with PTSD. Key components
of effective treatment are psycho-education about trauma reactions,
sustained exposure to trauma-related cues and memories until habituation
occurs, coping skills training for children to help them manage anxiety
and parent training to equip parents with the skills to help them
facilitate their children's recovery."
Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan,
Charles J.. (2003). Dispositional and contextual perspectives on coping:
Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 59
(12). p1387-1403, 17p. link
"The clinical disciplines
have witnessed a rapidly growing literature on the conceptualization
and measurement of coping and on the role of coping in confronting
stressful life circumstances and maintaining adaptive functioning.
This literature has spawned a diversity of concepts and contrasting
perspectives on the determinants and effects of coping. To address
this complexity, we comment on dispositional and contextual perspectives
on the coping process, describe the domains of coping styles and coping
skills, and review some measures of these constructs. Next, we present
a conceptual framework that integrates key aspects of these constructs
and use the framework to guide a selective review of the linkages
between personal and social resources, coping skills, and adaptive
functioning. We then consider applications of the framework to clinical
Simons, Lori; Ducette,
Joseph; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Stahler, Gerald; Shipley Jr., Thomas E..
(2003). Childhood Trauma, Avoidance Coping, and Alcohol and Other
Drug Use Among Women in Residential and Outpatient Treatment Programs.
Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 21 (4). p37-54, 18p link
"This study evaluates
the different types of childhood trauma, avoidance coping, and patterns
of drug and alcohol use among 112 alcohol and drug abusing females
in outpatient and residential treatment. A passive research design
with self-report surveys was administered to female participants during
treatment to assess the relationship between childhood trauma, coping
methods, and alcohol and drug use. A multiple regression analysis
demonstrated that women with a history of emotional abuse were more
likely to engage in avoidance coping skills than those without a history
of emotional abuse, which provides some support for the theory that
alcohol and drug abuse may be an avoidance coping method for childhood
Lefkowitz, Carin; Paharia, Indira; Prout, Maurice; Debiak, Dennis;
Bleiberg, James. (2005). Animal-Assisted Prolonged Exposure: A Treatment
for Survivors of Sexual Assault Suffering Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Society & Animals. 13 (4). p275-295, 21p. link
"This paper proposes
the development of a new model of treatment for survivors of sexual
abuse suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Foa, Rothbaum,
Riggs, and Murdock (1991) and Foa, Rothbaum, and Furr (2003) support
Prolonged Exposure (PE) as a highly effective treatment for PTSD.
However, PE can be intimidating to survivors, contributing to hesitancy
to participate in the treatment. This paper posits that animal-assisted
therapy (AAT) will decrease anxiety, lower physiological arousal,
enhance the therapeutic alliance, and promote social lubrication.
The paper also posits that AAT will enhance the value of PE by making
it more accessible to survivors, increasing social interaction, and
perhaps decreasing the number of sessions required for habituation
to the traumatic memories."
"Post-traumatic stress disorder."
Jacqueline L. Longe, M.D. and Jill Granger, MS The Gale Encyclopedia
of Medicine. Second Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols.
Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2001.
"Several types of therapy may
be useful and they are often combined in a multi-faceted approach
to understand and treat this condition.
focuses on changing specific actions and thoughts through repetitive
review of traumatic events, identification of negative behaviors and
thoughts, and stress management.
- Group therapy has been useful in decreasing psychological distress,
depression, and anxiety in some PTSD sufferers such as sexually abused
women and war veterans.
- Psychological debriefing has been widely used to treat victims of
natural disasters and other traumatic events such as bombings and
workplace shootings, however, recent research shows that psychological
debriefing may increase the stress response. Since this type of debriefing
focuses on the emotional response of the survivor, it is not recommended
for individuals experiencing an extreme level of grief.
Chibbaro, Julia S.; Jackson,
C. Marie (2006). Helping Students Cope in an Age of Terrorism: Strategies
for School Counselors. Professional School Counseling, 9 (4), p314-321.
"That educators can foster
the development of coping skills in young children through heightened
sensory awareness, positive expectations, a clear understanding of
one's strengths relating to accomplishment, and developing a sense
of humor. Taking action is among the coping skills helpful to strengthen
students' sense of self-control. Sklare (1997) wrote, "Getting
clients to take action first shows them that they are able to succeed
regardless of previous obstacles" (p. 14). Action and movement
help overcome a feeling of helplessness that often arises from fear."
Anson, Katie; Ponsford, Jennie
(2006). Evaluation of a coping skills group following traumatic brain
injury. Brain Injury, 20 (2). link
"Adaptive coping, as measured
on the Coping Scale for Adults, increased significantly immediately
following intervention. However, no significant changes in anxiety,
depression, self-esteem and psychosocial function were observed on
the measures used. Conclusions : The results suggest that it may be
possible to modify coping strategy use following brain injury, through
Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa
A.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Stark-Riemer, Wendy (2004). Preliminary evaluation
of a video-based intervention for older adult victims of violence.
Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17 (6).
"Results indicated that
older adult victims assigned to the video condition and assessed later
that day exhibited greater awareness of crime-related symptoms, healthy
coping strategies, and safely planning strategies than did the older
adult victims assigned to standard practice of care. However, despite
knowledge gains, and in contrast to our predictions, no differences
on measures of anxiety or depression were evident"
Bloks, Hans; van Furth, Eric
F.; Callewaert, Ineke; Hoek, Hans W. (2004). Coping Strategies and
Recovery in Patients with a Severe Eating Disorder. Eating Disorders,
12 (2). link
"Recovery is associated
with less Avoiding, less Passive Reacting, more Active
Tackling, and more Seeking of Social Support. Passive Reacting emerged
as a robust predictor of recovery. Seeking Social Support predicted
bulimic symptomatology and global functioning. Building coping skills
in eating disorder patients may start early in treatment and may make
patients less vulnerable for relapse."
Search terms: LIFE skills,
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