Rape Crisis Research
communication and rape victims
Using both sides of the brain: Experiences that integrate art and talk therapy through scribble drawings. McNamee, Carole M.; Art Therapy, Vol 21(3), 2004. pp. 136-142. link
Neuroscience researchers identify a cerebral cortex with two functioning hemispheres: a left hemisphere associated with language and speech and a. right hemisphere associated with visual-motor activities. Additionally, neuroscientists argue that contemporary lifestyles favor the verbal, logical left brain and often ignore the truths that present in the right brain. Psychotherapy techniques range in their use of left-brain verbal discourse and right-brain nonverbal discourse. In a case study, the author describes experiences integrating both verbal and nonverbal therapy with a client with severe anxiety and depression. Nonverbal therapy involved annotated scribble drawings. Images in the drawings became the stimuli for verbal discourse with the client. Other client responses to the annotated scribble drawings are described.
Use of drawing technique to encourage verbalization in adult survivor of sexual abuse. Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol 25(4), 1998. pp. 257-262. link
Demonstrates the effectiveness
of drawings (art therapy) in encouraging an adult survivor of childhood
sexual abuse to speak about the past traumatic experiences. This ability
to speak up not only breaks the conspiracy of family members to keep the
secret, but also enables the victim to deal with negative feelings toward
himself/herself and his/her parents. The drawing technique is illustrated
in 4 therapeutic sessions (out of 24) with an adult female who was sexually
abused by her father in childhood.
This article describes a method
for the holistic assessment of rape victims. This method consists of assessing
the effect the rape has on the victims'affective, cognitive and behavioural
functioning. By assessing the severity of the trauma in these areas counsellors
are able to develop appropriate treatment strategies.
Art speaks in healing survivors of war: The use of art therapy in treating trauma survivors. Baker, Barbara Ann; Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Vol 12(1-2), 2006. pp. 183-198.
Mental health clinics can use creative art therapies as a means of reaching out to war refugees in their communities who may not respond to traditional talk therapy. In this case, the use of quilting and other artwork was utilized by the staff at Chicago Health Outreach to assist displaced Bosnians to cope with their war-related trauma and integration into their new environment in the United States. It can be difficult to reach refugee populations within a community whose culture and language are different from the majority, but finding other means of communicating can make a real difference for these individuals as they find safety and understanding by working on and sharing special creative projects.
The healing art: The integration of art therapy into the modern psychoanalytic approach. Sharon, Ruth Velikorsky; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 65(7-B), 2005. pp. 3724.
In this study I want to illustrate how the production of drawings and written associations of a patient in the psychoanalytic framework can be a springboard for progressive verbalization and communication. It is helpful because it can facilitate the expression of pre-verbal and non-verbal material. Experiences of the patient, before the age of language acquisition, fall into this category. I will do this using a case study approach, by presenting the case of Rachel, a preoedipal patient whom I treated through the use of art in the psychoanalytic framework. Her case will be presented, and the repetitive material which signalled the presence of the resistance and the unconscious material in her art work and written associations to it will be summarized and explored. I will discuss the presence of the transference, countertransference, and resistance in our therapeutic relationship-as present in her work, her actions, and her behavior as treatment progressed. My purpose in doing that is to explore the ways in which the use of art effected those elements. I also hope to open this field for more research in this area.
This research was designed to explore what happens in the process of therapy when clients, having persisting symptoms of sexual abuse and having disclosed that abuse, have access to a wide variety of art materials to select and use in treatment. A blend of qualitative and quantitative research in design, the study is an initial step towards a greater understanding of the potentially transformative experience of art making and the role of art mediums in the practice of therapy. Treatment for abuse is a long, complex and arduous process. Persistent aspects of abusive experience remain deeply buried within the body and cause periodic, cyclical, somatic and psychological problems in an individual's life. Clients often feel words are too immediate and too explicit to describe the experience and the resulting emotional response generated by sexual abuse. Created within the context of what psychiatrist Winnicott (1971) described as the "good enough" therapeutic relationship, artwork may be viewed as more concrete and symbolic, or less immediately explicit and therefore safer than verbal communications. Sensory-based therapies such as art therapy are, therefore, particularly useful in accessing traumatic memories and transforming the experience to a less damaging state. For this study, the author set up private practice to work as therapist with eight individuals for eight fifty-five minute sessions in a traditional art therapy studio. Each session was documented on videotape. Artwork was photographed. Videotapes, artwork, intake histories and the researcher/therapist's notes were analyzed. Brief case studies were developed. Data were considered by frequencies and ordinal comparisons for immerging patterns. The data described art mediums as accessing cognitive, symbolic, emotional, perceptual, kinesthetic and sensory levels of understanding. A spiral model facilitated understanding the process. The potential to pace the process of therapy by direction and selection of more or less mediated, fluid and controllable art mediums was shown to exist. Through the spatial and kinesthetic processes of art making in art therapy, the individual controls recollection, comprehension, integration and resolution of trauma. Art mediums are central in art therapy as they safely provide the means of expression and reflection to transform trauma in the bodymind.
(from the jacket) Art can be an invaluable means of communication. It can bypass language and hearing impairment and become a means of communicating thoughts or feelings too difficult to express with words. This book uses three original art assessments that use stimulus drawings to elicit response drawings that provide access to a patient's emotions and attitudes toward themselves and others while testing for the ability to solve problems and convey ideas. Each assessment includes studies of reliability, validity, and normative data, drawing on international research in the field and on the author's own body of work spanning more than forty years. Stimulus drawings are provided as well as drawing from imagination tasks, and rating scales to assess emotional and cognitive content.
Arts as language: Access to thoughts and feelings through stimulus drawings. Silver, Rawley; New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge, 2001. xix, 187 pp.
from the cover) Discusses the use of the visual medium as a linguistic parallel to verbal or written communication. While recognizing that language expands and facilitates thought, the author illustrates the existence of high-level thinking in its absence and demonstrates the usefulness of drawing as an expressional tool for patients who are unable, or unwilling, to express themselves through the conventional use of language. Covering areas such as cognition, creativity, and emotion, this book provides the reader with an introduction to and explanation of stimulus drawing assessment. In this approach, drawings serve as the principal channel for the exchange of ideas. Stimulus drawings are provided to the patient to evoke a response drawing. These response drawings allow patients to sketch their fantasies, thus allowing some sort of gratification. The drawings may also serve as a means of acceptably expressing feelings the patient deems inappropriate, such as fear or anger. Reviews of qualitative and quantitative studies follow the introduction. By reviewing studies of children, adolescents, and adults suffering form various impairments and injuries, the author shows the broad applicability of stimulus drawing assessments.
Mandala artwork by clients with DID: Clinical observations based on two theoretical models. Cox, Carol Thayer; Cohen, Barry M.; Art Therapy, Vol 17(3), 2000. pp. 195-201.
The authors have explored the compositional patterns and thematic imagery in mandala drawings by a large group of patients diagnosed with multiple personality/dissociative identity disorder (MPD/DID). In approaching this work, they used both the Ten Category Model (G. M. Cohen & C. T. Cox, 1995) and the Great Round of Mandala theory (J. Kellogg, 1978, 1997) looking for parallels between the two systems of analysis to help therapists better understand the nonverbal communications of their clients. Although not a formal research study, the observations based on the synthesis of these two unrelated models are nonetheless consistent with the assessment and treatment literature on DID.
(from the cover) Presenting an
account of the challenges encountered in art psychotherapy practice, this
book explores new theoretical material arising from the merging of art
and group psychotherapy. The contributors present in-depth discussion
of case studies with client groups such as children, forensic patients,
patients on acute psychiatric wards, the cognitively impaired elderly,
institutionalized patients moving into the community, and drug and alcohol
abusers. A common theme which emerges from the book is that the physical
use of art materials and the space of the art room offer a possibility
for communication of feelings which is not possible in purely verbal groups.
This allows clients with severe mental health problems, and groups who
would not normally be considered for purely verbal group therapy, to benefit
from a psychodynamic group process.
(from the cover) In the therapeutic
workplace, the interaction between patient and therapist is built upon
cognitive, affective and expressive experiences. The contributors to this
book explore this interaction, examining the concept of therapeutic presence,
and the therapist's ability to maintain it. The theory integrates a creative
framework that synthesizes traditional and non-traditional approaches
to treatment, and will be of use to all mental health professionals.
Resources to research this subject:
Related links: Victim blame
Find Journal Articles on this subject
Home| Finding books at the library|Encyclopedias and Dictionaries|Biographies|Books on healing|Statistics|Websites |Films|Journals and articles |Bibliographies|Online Libraries|Victim blame|Theories |Privacy|Grants|Crisis hotlines| Crisis Information |Rape crisis sites|Rape crisis centers|Help rape victims|N.C. rape crisis resources|Message boards|Suicide hotlines|Louisiana|Victim Assistance|PTSD |OCD|DID|Eating disorders and rape|Self Injury|Health and emergency contraception|Therapy|Online therapy |Date rape drugs|Lesbian sexual assault|Feminist|Petitions|War and rape|Partners|Male survivors|Victim Assistance|Created by|More Information|Blog|Community
Search this site
The author is not responsible for any contents linked or referred to from his or her pages - unless s/he has full knowledge of illegal contents and would be able to prevent the visitors of his site from viewing those pages. If any damage occurs by the use of information presented there, only the author of the respective pages might be liable, not the one who has linked to these pages. Furthermore the author is not liable for any postings or messages published by users of discussion boards, guestbooks or mailinglists provided on his or her page. The author is not a psychiatrist or physician / medical doctor or legal attorney of any sort. This website is not intended to replace medical, psychiatric or legal care. Please seek professional attention as needed.The Information provided is not intended to replace obtaining medical evaluations and health care advice from qualified health care providers. This site's owners are providing Information for reference only, and do not intend said Information to be used for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical conditions, or for any other purposes.The owner/author of this site MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF SAID INFORMATION, OR THE FITNESS OF THE INFORMATION TO BE USED FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, LOSS, EXPENSE, OR DAMAGE OF ANY KIND TO USER, OR TO ANY THIRD PARTY, RELATED TO THE USE OF SAID INFORMATION. Persons accessing any Information of the rape crisis information web site, directly or indirectly, assume full responsibility for the use of the Information and understand and agree that the author of rape crisis information is not responsible or liable for any claim, loss, or damage arising from the use of said Information.
Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder, UNC Chapel Hill, N.C., http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/