Eden GF. Jones KM.
Cappell K. Gareau L. Wood FB. Zeffiro TA. Dietz NA. Agnew JA. Flowers
DL. Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia.
[Clinical Trial. Journal Article] Neuron. 44(3):411-22, 2004 Oct 28.
Brain imaging studies have explored the neural mechanisms of recovery in adults following acquired disorders and, more recently, childhood developmental disorders. However, the neural systems underlying adult rehabilitation of neurobiologically based learning disabilities remain unexplored, despite their high incidence. Here we characterize the differences in brain activity during a phonological manipulation task before and after a behavioral intervention in adults with developmental dyslexia. Phonologically targeted training resulted in performance improvements in tutored compared to nontutored dyslexics, and these gains were associated with signal increases in bilateral parietal and right perisylvian cortices. Our findings demonstrate that behavioral changes in tutored dyslexic adults are associated with (1) increased activity in those left-hemisphere regions engaged by normal readers and (2) compensatory activity in the right perisylvian cortex. Hence, behavioral plasticity in adult developmental dyslexia involves two distinct neural mechanisms, each of which has previously been observed either for remediation of developmental or acquired reading disorders.
Alexander AW. Slinger-Constant AM. Current status of treatments for dyslexia: critical review.[see comment]. [Review] [73 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Journal of Child Neurology. 19(10):744-58, 2004 Oct.
The acquisition of reading is a complex neurobiologic process. Identifying the most effective instruction and remedial intervention methods for children at risk of developing reading problems and for those who are already struggling is equally complex. This article aims to provide the clinician with a review of more current findings on the prevention and remediation of reading problems in children, along with an approach to considering the diagnosis and treatment of a child with dyslexia. The first part of the review describes interventions targeted at preventing reading difficulties in the at-risk younger child. The second part of the review discusses the efficacy of approaches to treat the older, reading-disabled child ("intervention studies"). Factors that impact the response to treatment are also discussed, as are neuroimaging studies that offer insight into how the brain responds to treatment interventions. With appropriate instruction, at-risk readers can become both accurate and fluent readers. In contrast, although intensive, evidence-based remedial interventions can markedly improve reading accuracy in older, reading-disabled children, they have been significantly less effective in closing the fluency gap. Owing to the dynamic course of language development and the changes in language demands over time, even after a child has demonstrated a substantial response to treatment interventions, his or her subsequent progress should be carefully tracked to ensure optimal progress toward the development of functional reading and written language skills. [References: 73]
Hellawell SJ. Brewin CR. A comparison
of flashbacks and ordinary autobiographical memories of trauma: content
and language. [Journal Article] Behaviour Research & Therapy. 42(1):1-12,
We investigated hypotheses derived from the dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder, which proposes that flashbacks and ordinary memories of trauma are supported by different types of representation. Sixty-two participants meeting diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder completed a detailed written trauma narrative, and afterwards identified those sections in the narrative that had been written in flashback and ordinary memory periods. As predicted, flashback periods were characterised by greater use of detail, particularly perceptual detail, by more mentions of death, more use of the present tense, and more mention of fear, helplessness, and horror. In contrast, ordinary memory sections were characterised by more mention of secondary emotions such as guilt and anger.
In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Bakker DJ. Treatment of developmental dyslexia: A review. [Journal Article] Pediatric Rehabilitation. 9(1):3-13, 2006 Jan-Mar.
Remarkably few research articles on the treatment of developmental dyslexia were published during the last 25 years. Some treatment research arose from the temporal processing theory, some from the phonological deficit hypothesis and some more from the balance model of learning to read and dyslexia. Within the framework of that model, this article reviews the aetiology of dyslexia sub-types, the neuropsychological rationale for treatment, the treatment techniques and the outcomes of treatment research. The possible mechanisms underlying the effects of treatment are discussed.
Tijms J. Hoeks J. A computerized treatment of dyslexia: benefits from treating lexico-phonological processing problems. [Clinical Trial. Journal Article. Randomized Controlled Trial] Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association. 11(1):22-40, 2005 Feb.
Two hundred sixty-seven 10- to 14-year-old Dutch children with dyslexia were randomly assigned to one of two samples that received a treatment for reading and spelling difficulties. The treatment was computer-based and focused on learning to recognise and use the phonological and morphological structure of Dutch words. The inferential algorithmic basis of the program ensured that the instruction was highly structured. The present study examined the reliability of the effects of the treatment, and provided an evaluation of the attained levels of reading and spelling by relating them to normal levels. Both samples revealed large, generalized treatment effects on reading accuracy, reading rate, and spelling skills. Following the treatment, participants attained an average level of reading accuracy and spelling. The attained level of reading rate was comparable to the lower bound of the average range.
Higgins EL. Raskind MH. Speech
recognition-based and automaticity programs to help students with severe
reading and spelling problems.[see comment]. [Clinical Trial. Journal
Article] Annals of Dyslexia. 54(2):365-92, 2004 Dec.
This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two programs developed by the Frostig Center Research Department to improve the reading and spelling of students with learning disabilities (LD): a computer Speech Recognition-based Program (SRBP) and a computer and text-based Automaticity Program (AP). Twenty-eight LD students with reading and spelling difficulties (aged 8 to 18) received each program for 17 weeks and were compared with 16 students in a contrast group who did not receive either program. After adjusting for age and IQ, both the SRBP and AP groups showed significant differences over the contrast group in improving word recognition and reading comprehension. Neither program showed significant differences over contrasts in spelling. The SRBP also improved the performance of the target group when compared with the contrast group on phonological elision and nonword reading efficiency tasks. The AP showed significant differences in all process and reading efficiency measures.
De Bellis MD. Keshavan MS. Shifflett H. Iyengar S. Beers SR. Hall J. Moritz G. Brain structures in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a sociodemographically matched study. [Journal Article] Biological Psychiatry. 52(11):1066-78, 2002 Dec 1.
Database - Ovid MEDLINE(R)
BACKGROUND: Previous investigations suggest that maltreated children evidence alterations of chemical mediators of stress and adverse brain development. Previous anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain studies have not controlled for socioeconomic status. METHODS: In this study, 28 psychotropic naive children and adolescents with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 66 sociodemographically similar healthy control subjects underwent comprehensive clinical assessments and anatomical MRI brain scans. RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, subjects with PTSD had smaller intracranial, cerebral, and prefrontal cortex, prefrontal cortical white matter, and right temporal lobe volumes and areas of the corpus callosum and its subregions (2, 4, 5, 6, and 7), and larger frontal lobe cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes than control subjects. The total midsagittal area of corpus callosum and middle and posterior regions remained smaller in subjects with PTSD, whereas right, left, and total lateral ventricles and frontal lobe CSF were proportionally larger than in control subjects, after adjustment for cerebral volume. Brain volumes positively correlated with age of onset of PTSD trauma and negatively correlated with duration of abuse. Significant gender x group effect demonstrated greater lateral ventricular volume increases in maltreated male subjects with PTSD than maltreated female subjects with PTSD. No hippocampal differences were seen. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide further evidence to suggest that maltreatment-related PTSD is associated with adverse brain development. These data also suggest that male children may be more vulnerable to these effects.
Brysbaert M. The importance of interhemispheric transfer for foveal vision: a factor that has been overlooked in theories of visual word recognition and object perception. [Journal Article] Brain & Language. 88(3):259-67, 2004 Mar.
In this special issue of Brain and Language, we examine what implications the division between the left and the right brain half has for the recognition of words presented in the center of the visual field. The different articles are a first indication that taking into account the split between the left and the right cerebral hemisphere need not be an inescapable nuisance in models of visual word recognition but may in fact form the clue to the solution of a longstanding problem within this literature. Also, the fact that interhemispheric transfer has implications for foveal word recognition should interest laterality researchers, as it makes their findings more central to normal reading. In this introductory article, I first present a rough picture of the current (lack of) evidence for a bilateral representation of the fovea and the absence of a callosal delay. I then briefly discuss the suggestions made by the different authors on how to integrate the foveal split within current models of visual word recognition.
Cole M. When the left brain is not right the right brain may be left: report of personal experience of occipital hemianopia.[see comment]. [Case Reports. Journal Article] Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 67(2):169-73, 1999 Aug.
OBJECTIVES: To make a personal report of a hemianopia due to an occipital infarct, sustained by a professor of neurology. METHODS: Verbatim observation of neurological phenomena recorded during the acute illness. RESULTS: Hemianopia, visual hallucinations, and non-occipital deficits without extraoccipital lesions on MRI, are described and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Hemianopia, due to an occipital infarct, without alexia, is not a disability which precludes a normal professional career. Neurorehabilitation has not been necessary.
Sondergaard HP. Theorell T. Language acquisition in relation to cumulative posttraumatic stress disorder symptom load over time in a sample of re-settled refugees. [Journal Article] Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics. 73(5):320-3, 2004 Sep-Oct.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and dissociation as well as cumulative symptom load on language learning during the introduction phase in re-settled refugees. METHOD: Participants were re-settled refugees of Iraqi origin. They were assessed by means of a structured interview for PTSD at baseline as well as self-rating questionnaires. Language acquisition was studied by means of register data from the school system. Five levels of language proficiency were recorded. Self-reported symptom scores for PTSD, depression and dissociation (Impact of Events Scale-22, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Dissociative Experiences Scale) were measured at four time points during 9 months immediately after resettlement. In 49 participants in a longitudinal study, data regarding progress in language studies were accessible. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the speed of language acquisition - the number of levels taken during the study, adjusted to hours of school presence - is related to the cumulative PTSD symptom load over time (Events Scale-22), but is not related neither to the symptom load of depression and dissociation, nor to the number of previous school years. CONCLUSION: The study shows that the symptom load of PTSD during the follow-up period is significantly inversely related to the speed of language acquisition in refugees. This implies that treatment as well as preventive measures against worsening of PTSD symptoms are important in order to minimise harmful post-migration stress for the facilitation of integration.
Cherney LR. Aphasia, alexia, and oral reading. [Review] [79 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation. 11(1):22-36, 2004.
Alexia is an acquired disturbance in reading. Alexias that occur after left hemisphere damage typically result from linguistic deficits and may occur as isolated symptoms or as part of an aphasia syndrome. This article presents an overview of the classification of the alexias, including both the traditional neuroanatomical perspective and the more recent psycholinguistic approach. Then, assessment procedures are reviewed, followed by a summary of treatment approaches for alexia. Finally, two case studies illustrate how oral reading of connected language (sentences and paragraphs rather than single words) has been used as a technique for treating alexia in patients with aphasia. [References: 79]
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