Smith, M. &
Kelly, L. (2001). The journey of recovery after a rape experience.
Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2(4), Jun pp. 337-352. link
of the study was to discover the meaning of recovery from the perception
of the victim, how recovery is experienced, and what contributed to
the growth and recovery of the woman who has been raped...The thematic
structure of a woman's recovery from rape comprises 3 main themes:
the rape, and redefining
Ball R. (1982).
Victims and Their Psychiatric
Needs (From National Symposium on Victimology - Proceedings,
P 211-219, 1982, P N Grabosky, ed. - See NCJ-90209)
Victims of violent
crime are likely to experience a psychic erosion of a sense of personal
invulnerability, a yearning for interaction with and service toward
others, and a sense of control over personal destiny. Such a psychic
and bodily assault can elicit the use of a number of categories of
coping abilities: (1) denying or minimizing the seriousness of a crisis;
(2) seeking relevant information and using intellectual resources
effectively; (3) obtaining reassurance and emotional support from
concerned friends, family, and experts deemed competent to provide
help; (4) learning injury-related procedures; (5) setting practical
goals; and (6) rehearsing alternative outcomes. Adaptive tasks related
to physical injuries include dealing with pain and incapacity, adapting
to hospital and other medical environments as well as special treatment
procedures, and developing relationships with various professional
staff. General needs involve maintaining a reasonable emotional balance,
retaining a satisfactory self-image, preserving relationships with
family and friends, and preparing for an uncertain future. Eight references
Matsushita-Arao, Yoshiko. (1997).
Self-blame and depression among forcible rape survivors. Dissertation
Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering,
57(9-B). pp. 5925.
The purposes of this study
were four-fold. The first purpose was to determine the relationship
between rape survivors' self-blame (behavioral, characterological,
and total amount of self-blame) and time (retrospective and current
assessments). For the retrospective assessment, survivors rated their
feelings of self-blame immediately following their rape and before
receiving Rape Crisis Center (RCC) treatment. For the current assessment,
survivors rated their feelings of self-blame at the time of completing
this study's questionnaire and after having received RCC treatment.
The second purpose was to identify whether perceived severity was
a better predictor of current total amounts of self-blame and depression
than actual severity. The third purpose was to determine the relationships
between current self-blame and depression and various pre-assault,
assault, and post-assault variables. The fourth purpose was to identify
the relationships between RCC contacts (number of contacts and amount
of satisfaction) and current self-blame and depression. Participants
were women survivors of adult forcible rape identified by staff members
at 14 RCCs. Questionnaires were mailed to 50 women who agreed to participate,
and of these, 42 (84%) returned them. Wilcoxin Signed-Ranks test for
matched pairs, simple correlations, and multiple regression were used
to analyze the data. The major findings were: (1) RCC survivors reported
experiencing less total, behavioral, and characterological amounts
of self-blame currently than they retrospectively reported experiencing
right after their rape. (2) The best predictor of current total amount
of self-blame using pre-assault, assault, and post-assault variables
was the relationship to the assailant(s). Survivors who knew their
assailant(s) reported experiencing more self-blame. (3) The best predictor
of current amount of depression was the amount of time since the rape.
As the amount of time increased, the survivors reported experiencing
less depression. (4) Three types of RCC counseling responses were
judged to be helpful in reducing feelings of self-blame: (a) supportive
responses, (b) psychoeducational responses, and (c) those responses
addressing the issue of blame. (5) There was an inverse relationship
between the number of RCC counseling contacts for the rape and the
current total amount of self-blame. As the number of contacts increased,
the survivors reported experiencing less self-blame. Implications
of the findings are discussed.
Littleton, H. & Breitkopf,
C. (2006). COPING WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF RAPE. Psychology of Women
Quarterly, 30 (1), p106-116.
strategies that a victim of a rape engages in can have a strong impact
on the development and persistence of
psychological symptoms. Research provides evidence that victims who
rely heavily on avoidance strategies, such as suppression,
are less likely to recover successfully than those who rely less heavily
on these strategies. The present study utilized
structural path analysis to identify predictors of avoidance coping
following rape and examined factors in the assault
itself (e.g., force, alcohol use), sequelae of the assault (e.g.,
self-blame, loss of self-worth), and social support as potential
direct and indirect predictors of avoidance coping. From a sample
of 1,253 university women, the responses of
216 women who endorsed an experience of rape were examined. Results
suggested that sequelae of the assault such as
feelings of self-blame and negative reactions received from others
are potentially important predictors of avoidance coping.
Implications of the results for future rape recovery research are
Koss, M. & Figueredo, A.
(2004). COGNITIVE MEDIATION OF RAPE'S MENTAL HEALTH IMPACT: CONSTRUCTIVE
REPLICATION OF A CROSS-SECTIONAL MODEL IN LONGITUDINAL DATA. Psychology
of Women Quarterly, 28 (4), p273-286.
"The model's central features
were confirmed and showed that Psychological Problem History exacerbated
Characterological Self-Blame, leading to more Maladaptive Beliefs,
which determined initial Psychosocial Distress and its rate of decline."
Assault Among Intimates: Frequency, Consequences and Treatments NCJRS
assaulted women reported an increased risk of femicide, rape-related
pregnancy, poor physical and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder,
increased alcohol use, and suicide."
Sarkar, N. N.;
Sarkar, Rina, (2005) Sexual assault on woman: Its impact on her life
and living in society. Sexual & Relationship Therapy,
20 (4), 407-419
Database: Academic Search Premier
Quote: The author's
aim is to bring forth the consequences of sexual assault on women
with a view to abate this crime against women. Data are extracted
from the literature through the computerised MEDLINE system. Women
sexually assaulted in childhood are twice as likely to be sexually
assaulted in adulthood. Post-traumatic mental problems, acute stress
disorders, depression and other psychological problems are found in
victims of sexual assault. Women often suffer from sleep disorders,
nightmare, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and diminishing
of sexual urge and pleasure among other disorders following sexual
assault or rape. Recovery is slower in sexual than in non-sexual assault
victims. Factors influencing recovery are emotional support from friends,
relations, social and community supports. Overall social changes in
outlook and perception towards women are needed in the modern society
to curb the sexual assault on women.
Schnurr, PP. Friedman,
MJ. Bernardy NC. (2002) Research on posttraumatic stress disorder:
epidemiology, pathophysiology, and assessment. Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 58(8):877-89. Database: Medline
stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent disorder in both clinical
and community populations. This article reviews current knowledge
about PTSD in order to assist clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment
of reactions to traumatic life events. First, research findings are
presented, followed by guidelines for the assessment of trauma and
PTSD. Topics discussed include epidemiology, course, and comorbidity,
as well as information processing and psychobiology. The review is
limited to information about PTSD in adults, although some of the
material may generalize to child and adolescent populations."
Burgess, A. D.
& Holmstrom, . (1974). Rape trauma syndrome. Am J Psychiatry,
Wasco, Sharon M., (2005) Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault. Journal
of Interpersonal Violence, 20 (1) p127-131, 6p;
sexual assault were 5.3 (95% CI, 1.3, 21.5) times more likely to report
threatening or attempted suicide within a 90-day period compared to
physically-abused only women."
Malecha, Ann; Gist, Julia; Watson, Kathy; Batten, Elizabeth; Hall,
Iva;Smith, Sheila (2005). INTIMATE PARTNER SEXUAL ASSAULT AGAINST
WOMEN AND ASSOCIATED VICTIM SUBSTANCE USE, SUICIDALITY, AND RISK FACTORS
FOR FEMICIDE. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Nov2005, Vol.
26 Issue 9, p953-967, 15p link